Climatic Changes And Agriculture
The term agriculture is defined in a number of ways. In relation to crop farming and livestock faming the term agriculture may be defined as the art and science of growing plants and the raising of animals for food, other human needs, or economic gain.
According to this definition agriculture is both art and a science which can be elaborated as the skills required FOR growing crops and raising animals through the help of proper scientific knowledge. Thus the subject of agriculture comprises specialized knowledge for crop or live stock production whose ultimate purpose is to serve the human needs. Agriculture basically is an enterprise that requires systamized knowledge and that knowledge is then used in a disciplined way to produce food, other human needs and economic gains.
However there are some factors that can affect the process of agriculture like technological factors, and economical factors. Climatic changes are also one of them. Agriculture is highly sensitive and is affected by weather changes like such as floods, storms, and droughts. Climatic change and agriculture are interrelated processes both of which take place on a global scale. The climatic changes can affect the process of agriculture in several ways. It can affect productivity of the crops i.e. the amount produced. It can also affect irrigation system for crops. Changes in soil due to any form of climate change can also effect the growth of plants.
Climatic forces have also faced a changed due to increased human activity. These changes have a great impact on productivity in the agricultural system and have posed challenges for the farmers. There are several factors that connect climate change and agricultural productivity. These factors are temperature increases, changes in rainfall amount and patters that can affect water supply, increasing carbon dioxide, increasing pollution levels that are proved to be damaging ozone layer and occurrence of extreme and sudden climatic events. These factors not only affect the production quantity of crops and live stock but also their quality.
Recent studies have shown that increasing heat, floods, droughts have a negative effect on crops and livestock as these changes are occurring earlier than predicted. This is specially the case for areas at low altitudes. Some observers believe that the effects of climate on agriculture are very slow and can be overcome through the efficient use of technology and economics. But on the other hand others believe that it is important to study and monitor these effects on regular basis as the production and quality can be misbalanced if certain climatic factor affects the agriculture without a warning. They emphasize on being predictive about what can changes can occur in climate. Also they emphasize on identifying thresholds and surprises that can occur any time in climate so that they can be accommodated at the time they occur in a more effective way without causing a vast devastation to the agricultural system of a country.