TheAgriculture (Latin agricultura ) is a process by which men adjust their ecosystems to meet the needs of their societies 1 . It is the set of skills and activities aimed at the cultivation of land , and, more generally, all the work on the natural environment (not just land) to grow and take of living things ( plants , animals or fungi or microbes) relevant to the human being .
The agricultural groups, from the xix th century, the general biological knowledge, technical, cultural, economic and social on agriculture.
In political economy , the agriculture is defined as the industry whose function is to produce a financial return from the land use (culture), the forest ( forestry ), the sea, lakes and rivers ( aquaculture , fisheries ), the farm animal ( livestock ) and wildlife ( hunting ). In practice, this exercise is weighted by the availability of resources and components of the biophysical and human environment. The production and electronic cigarette distribution in this area are closely linked to political economy in a global environment.
Main article: History of Agriculture .
Agriculture is born with the planting of seed or seed by man. It started 10,000 years ago in the Middle East , in Iran and in New Guinea . This is what is called the Neolithic Revolution .
Despite the rural exodus massive contemporary, the agricultural workforce would be approximately 1.34 billion people or nearly 43% of the workforce worldwide.
The main agricultural activity provides the power of humans . In addition, agriculture produces a large number of products such as skins of animals, fertilizers , products for the industry ( ethanol , starch , hemp ), green chicago dui lawyer plants and flowers , of wood . It represents an essential link in the chain food , and maintain its supply of raw materials (starch, onion, cereal, fruit, etc.)..
The precise boundaries of what falls within the field of agriculture weight loss pills led to many conventions that are not subject to any consensus. Some products may be considered as not being part of agriculture: the development of ppi claim forest ( forestry ), animal husbandry of aquatic animals ( aquaculture ), the above-ground farming of certain animals (poultry and pork mainly), culture on artificial substrate (crops hydroponically ) … Apart from these cases, there are mainly the culture for the activity on the plant pay day loans and the farm for the activity on the animal .
Culture, and crop production is divided into field crops ( cereals , oilseeds , pulses and some vegetables), tree fruit, viticulture (grape production), forestry and horticulture .
The farming or livestock production, is to give birth and raise animals for consumption directly (meat) or products (milk, eggs, wool, honey, etc.). Farms may, for example their production to cattle , the pigs , the sheep / goats or granivores .
Example of the primary product for the food and feed: beef, veal, pork, chicken, rabbit, horse, lamb, duck, turkey, goose, snail …
Example of secondary product: honey , milk and other dairy products, foie gras , silk , wool , …
Many factors are involved in agriculture by promoting or disrupting production:
the water in terms of availability at the right time but also in terms of quality
the climate and unexpected changes (heat, drought, rain, hail, frost and other weather disasters)
the species plant
predators (pests, diseases, and consumers of all kinds, plants, insects, wild animals …)
the agronomy (fertilization, biology, genetics, etc.)
and overall the whole socio-economic environment (oil prices, legislation, consumer, government, etc.)..
As a result, agriculture is the area’s oldest and most complex of the civilized world, but also the most impacted by the modern and aspirations of man.
There are several agricultural systems according to their functioning and their socio-economic and environmental:
the intensive agriculture
the affiliate marketing guide sustainable agriculture
the extensive agriculture
The subsistence farming .
The farming .
The subsistence farming .
The precision farming .
The agriculture above ground : culture successively hydroponic aeroponic and ultraponique.
Spraying a field by plane, in the Illinois , the United States .
The techniques that have marked the evolution of agriculture are, in alphabetical order:
Agriculture soilless 100 day loans cultures together above ground: aeroponics , hydroponics , ultraponie and farms above ground
Crop protection , crop protection products
Selective breeding of animals
Simplified cultivation techniques (TCS)
Transfer of fertility
Agriculture has a strong environmental impact, particularly livestock and meat production . But remember that the biggest polluters are the individuals who unknowingly use pesticides in large quantities in their garden or using household products that go directly into the water
Contribution to the greenhouse effect
Agriculture is a sector that contributes significantly to the greenhouse effect . In France , it’s the same sector that contributes most to this phenomenon (24% of emissions in 1998) before the road (21% of emissions), manufacturing (21%), residential tertiary (18% ) and energy conversion (12%) 2 . This requires an adaptation of agricultural practices 3 .
In France , the three greenhouse gases emitted by agriculture are, in order of importance in the agricultural sector 4 :
The nitrous oxide (N 2 O), whose share of agricultural emissions in France is 56%, and agriculture, whose share in total French emissions is 76% nitrous oxide has a length of residence very long in the atmosphere (120 years) and is issued by the spreading of fertilizer nitrogen and degradation processes in soil, and soil compaction and responsible use of heavy machinery;
The methane (CH 4 ), whose share of agricultural emissions in France chiropractic marketing is 33%, and agriculture, whose share in total French emissions is 70%, methane has a short residence time in the atmosphere (14 years) and is emitted by livestock in general, including the fermentation of manure in storage pits, and enteric fermentation by ruminants;
The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), whose share of agricultural emissions in France is 11%, and whose share of total French emissions is 14% carbon dioxide has a length of residence in the atmosphere long (100 years) and is emitted by energy use in agriculture (fuel, heating livestock buildings).
We see that the strongest contributions are nitrous oxide and methane (76% and 70% of total French emissions), and carbon dioxide occurs at a low level (only 14% of total French emissions ). Nitrous oxide has a GWP 100 years very high, 298 times higher than carbon dioxide.
Other environmental impacts
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Intensive agriculture has industrialized undeniably helped increase agricultural production while improving the overall safety of food, but it is increasingly criticized because of the degradation of the environment in which it is sometimes responsible for his addiction increasing the oil , the occurrence of recent food crises serious enough to worry the public .
In France , René Dumont , STD Test an engineer in agronomy and sociologist known, was one of the first people to denounce the devastation of the ” green revolution “and to fight against the productivist agriculture.
Wheat yields in developing countries (1950-2004)
Among the impacts environmental , the most cited are:
the pollution of waters of the air and soil by pesticides resulting in problems of environmental health
the eutrophication of groundwater and surface and coastal waters (Robert J. Diaz and Rutger Rosenberg, in August 2008 Science 15: 926-929), by fertilizers and losses or spreading of manure and manure
pollution , soil degradation and decline , including metals ( cadmium from phosphate fertilizers, lead, copper and other metals from old pesticides, or manure or sewage sludge rich in heavy metals
loss of biodiversity have led locally to the extinction of many animal species (including butterflies , bees , wasps , beetles , hcg diet plan reptiles , amphibians , sticklebacks , larks , etc.. very martial arts denver common in the fields or to their surroundings until the year 1970 ).
erosion of soils , the source of turbidity of rivers, the estuaries and marine areas (through the sediment in suspension and / or algal blooms .
downstream impacts inducing a depletion of marine species are also monitored ( dystrophisation of estuaries , creating marine dead whose surface has doubled every 10 years since 1960 (Robert J. Diaz and Rutger Rosenberg, in August 2008 Science 15: 926 – 929)
Finally, agriculture also produces waste . It is an important source of ammonia .
To stop soil erosion, some farmers abandoned locksmith the labor for the till , which also limits the use of the tractor and therefore reduces emissions of CO 2 . In the United States in 2005, 15% of arable land were treated in this way.
The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in some countries, such as the United States , the Canada , the Mexico or China , and potential risks associated with them are also subject to much discussion and conflict.
Recent years have also been in Europe the focus of several crises related to free ipad food security : beef with hormones , dioxin chicken, mad cow and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bacterial contamination of food (cheese listeria ).
Among the impacts social , the most cited are:
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Agricultural overproduction , overproduction of export of this type of agriculture to the South Country hcg drops , this leading to a destabilization of local food markets and an exodus of peasants to the slums of the country.
The ability to feed people
The food crises of 2008 and in 2011 raised the question of the ability to feed the world. These crises have complex multifactorial origin. “This runaway result of an accumulation of factors in the long and short term: population growth, inadequate investment in agriculture and rural development, declining stocks, increased oil prices (and therefore transport and fertilizer), modification climate, land grabbing for biofuels hcg drops export market distortions … ” 5
Most of these diseases were present in previous centuries. The “scrapie” e cigarette (the sheep version of mad cow disease), listeria or salmonella are not recent problems. They once scrabble word finder appeared in a much more frequent and often more tragic than now [ ref. desired] . Indeed, much progress has been made in matters of hygiene and control bacterial food. But the mass manufacture and sale of food are a single incident can affect a large number of people. The exceptional nature of the problems, the number of people potentially affected, the alarmist media tend to make an impression. However, the number of deaths by intoxication or poisoning in these cases “media” is extremely low [ref. needed] .
These events and the requirement for high quality health products have resulted in the establishment of systems of increasing traceability , the overhaul of the health legislation (European regulations Hygiene package) and the creation of security agencies health independent of the executive (EFSA for Europe and AFSSA and AFSSET – merged-handle – for France).
The labeling would allow consumers to decide whether to take the additional risk inherent in an intensive agriculture San Diego Homes For Rent or accept the higher price that accompanies the wedding rings emergence or development of alternative farming techniques, such as the farming , the permaculture , the farming and the precision farming .
Agriculture and biodiversity
Agriculture is a multidisciplinary field, which overlaps with areas such as botany , animal science, plant science, food science, the geology , the soil science , the hydrology , the microbiology , and biotechnology , the economy , the statistics The sociology . Since the year 1990 , experiments monitoring of biodiversity 6 are set up, which allowed particular to quantify the impacts of intensive agriculture and to show some interest in organic farming.
Besides its importance for the conservation of the genetic diversity of old varieties, Agriculture sometimes plays a major role for the protection of biological diversity: The European Commission combines three major criteria to measure the value of an agricultural area in terms of contribution to the preservation of biodiversity. The areas with the highest score are called ” high nature value ” 7 , 8 . 10% to 30% of agricultural land in Europe deserve the title. In France, 84% of the area classified as “high nature value” are in the mountains or mountainous (Alps, Corsica Franche-Comte, Massif Central, Pyrenees …). These are mostly areas of extensive breeding outdoor characterized by low stocking density (cattle) per hectare, little or no chemical inputs and almost always greater use of farm labor.
In France, at the ppi claim request of certain communities and certain conditions, protected agricultural areas may be included in planning documents , against the loss of land due to agricultural suburbanisation .
Organic and sustainable agriculture
Articles: Farming and Sustainable Agriculture .
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The refocusing of Europe vis a vis individual subsidies to farmers who make an effort for the environment. The agri-environmental measures and the organic farming are more or less encouraged and developed in different countries (2% of cultures in the OECD area are “organic”, up to 6% in some countries).
Economics and Statistics
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Agricultural trade represents 8.8% of world trade. They are heavily influenced by the impact of agricultural subsidies in developed countries and many barriers customs , tariff or not. However, this figure must be qualified: trade-related food industry, closely linked to agriculture, are far from negligible.
Economic Surveys by country
To promote exports, the country studies, global or sectoral, are available for free on their website by government agencies. Among them are the Department of Agriculture U.S. (USDA) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), representing two of the largest exporters of agricultural products. These two departments, along with other organizations, associations, universities or companies, also broadcast on the site Globaltrade.net 9 .
Globaltrade.net comes from a public-private partnership (PPP) between the United States Commercial Service (under the Department of Commerce of the United States] and the Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA). Globaltrade studies after class two sorting criteria: country studies and industry.
Agriculture and Productivity
Depending on the resources used can have a physical productivity per unit of labor (UTH for labor unit ) or physical productivity per unit of physical or economic exploitation (productivity per hectare of agricultural area, per unit area in a barn or in a greenhouse, by amount of fixed capital). In fact productivity is a concept inherent in the technical system, which requires to define it first. So down the productivity of conventional intensive agricultural systems, Michel Griffon 1 highlights that casino productivity is the result of ecological means implemented, it develops in this sense the idea of ecologically intensive agriculture based on the mobilization of technologies that have an overall positive effect on the environment. In this approach we can see also the article Microwave biointensive agriculture .
The physical productivity should not be confused with productivity enhancement based on the reported value of production to economic resources committed even if the two overlap and even less with the profitability .
Depending on the means used and especially the importance of the labor involved, intensive agriculture can occur in two opposite systems:
- traditional agriculture on the one hand
- agriculture Modern other.
Origins of scaling: traditional farming systems and increased
An essential feature of traditional farming systems and intensive is the importance of human labor (number of labor units incurred by land unit). The scarce resource is the land. Labor is abundant and / or low paid. This results in high productivity of land and low productivity of the UTH .
Case of Chinese agriculture
The traditional farming system in China is intense (high productivity per unit land), its traditional character speaking in the historical importance of the workforce engaged in very small or microexploitations. In 1957, there auctions online were 130 million family farms with an average of 6 persons and 1.7 hectare per family. In 1958, they were converted into 26,000 communes, then three years later, 6 million in production teams. After the reforms in 1978, farmers have regained control of their land. There are now 250 million family farms employing an average of 1.4 people in less than one acre 2 .
This system is now destabilized by industrialization and urban attractiveness as resulting happened in the past in the Western developed countries. Meanwhile, there is high-speed development of modern agriculture intensive, particularly in the area of factory farming (pigs and poultry).
We are indebted to the research of economists and historians have shown the age and conditions for the emergence of this system that has accompanied and led to a growing population, especially the work of Li free auto insurance quotes Bozhong the agricultural revolution in the era of Tang (618-906) vps hosting reported by Michel Cartier 3 . Unlike other traditional agricultural systems, the Chinese agricultural system has never been self-sufficient but instead strongly included in an exchange economy and linked to a multi-activity. All this has helped make China the world’s largest economy in terms of GDP until around 1850, a position it is in the process of finding 2 .
The main factors of this intensification were:
- priority crops
- the intensive use of manure
- the extensive use of irrigation
The irrigation required a workforce as very important for the construction of works for maintenance. This increase arises because China has only 10.1% of its arable land area is 0.08 ha per capita, while this percentage is 27.8% in Europe with 0.26 ha of arable land per capita 52.7% in France with 0, 46 ha per capita (in 1996 values for two ).
Today 52% of arable land is irrigated against 10% in China in the United States 2 .
Modern agriculture and intensification
The concept of modern agriculture does not necessarily imply the implementation of intensified but rather optimizing the use of means of production (land, labor, capital) based affiliate marketing guide on prices of the products delivered to the market, optimization in the mathematical sense of the term as implemented initially in the pioneering work of Jean de Lauwe Chombart on the linear optimization applied to the management of the farm 4 . The dominant feature of modern agriculture, intensive or not, is to reduce labor costs and working time per physical unit of output in the Discount Judaica products cost of production, Bins therefore high productivity ppi claim of labor or the UTH .
Modern intensive agriculture or partially non-intensive
It is implemented especially when the cost of land is particularly low, a situation that may occur in some countries. It was in this case a low productivity per hectare with a productivity higher UTH . For example:
In animal production
The beef meat South American, car transport company Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, can be both extensive (use of large grassland areas with low stocking rate per hectare, very little mechanization and inputs) and modern in that it uses some tools of modern breeding (animal pest control, prevention, containment), with a low relative cost of labor, for the costs of the beef production lowest in the world market.
Dairy farming in New Zealand is often considered as extensive in that it is mainly grassland, with very few purchased inputs compared to dairy systems in Europe and North American practice increased forage (corn silage ) and the use of feed concentrates, while being very modern in its rationality, even with a low relative cost of labor. In fact the production of the grass is intensive (fertilization and irrigation). In this system grazier control high degree of mechanical milking of large herds helps to push productivity per unit of labor. The balance sheet, this system delivers milk dairy products at the most competitive price in the global marketplace 5 .
In crop production
Some production systems, including grain, Australian, North American and South American, can be both modern and partially extensive or low intensity (low-input per hectare compared to European systems, no irrigation), with a strong mechanization is with a lower productivity per engagement ring hectare, but with very little labor. Australia (modern cereal and not extensive or semi intensive), we produce wheat at a rate of from 15 to 20 quintals per hectare on average but on farms from 4000 to 5000 hectares. In France, the Paris Basin (modern and intensive grain farming), it produces 80 to 100 quintals per hectare, but on farms of 150 to 300 hectares for the main 6 .
Modern intensive agriculture
Modern intensive agriculture combines both a high physical productivity of land or fixed assets capitalized and high productivity of labor units . In this sense it is sometimes called productivist , a term popular during the postwar period in totalitarian countries and Western , but sometimes pejorative connotation in the early xxi th century.
- to purchase equipment made by modern technology: agricultural machinery , irrigation and drainage of soils, greenhouse cultivation and soilless culture , etc..,
- to purchase agricultural supplies: seeds, fertilizers, processing crops, industrial products of animal feed, etc..,
- with very diverse techniques developed by technical Container Store agricultural education, by the technical agencies of agricultural development and the search itself (the INRA , the CEMAGREF etc.. in France), for commercial services as industrial firms.
Maximizing yield, intensive farming reduces to production equals the area under cultivation. For example, in France between 1989 and 2005, the average yield of all cereals increased from 60 to 70 q / ha for a production increase of 11.3% and a reduction of 2.7% on soil these cultures, releasing about 259 000 hectares of land 7 . Is the increase in yields that has, since the postwar period, significantly increase the rate of afforestation in the country, despite sterilization growing urban agricultural land.
Intensive agriculture has, during the xx th century , increase yields and dramatically as a result of agricultural production , and correspondingly reduce the production costs . The gains in payday loan productivity achieved has allowed the sharp decline in farm population in developed countries (it represents only 2-3% of the workforce ), meeting the needs of food and fiber (cotton) of the agricultural population and nonagricultural, and finding new markets via the export of a part of mass production, sometimes helping to correct, at least in part, poor nutrition on the planet, but sometimes by emphasizing Cell Phone Accessories breaking local markets non-competitive.
The agricultural industrialization has reduced the difficulty of living conditions and / or work of farmers, often increasing their income, but with a significant loss of agricultural employment.
The intensification of agriculture dating from the years 1960 to 1980 is also known under the term Green Revolution . She assured the food security , both in quantity and quality of developed countries and has helped to improve the supply of certain countries in the developing world, including India.
The so-called “developing” are often not able to life insurance quotes enjoy the benefits or expected wealth made possible by modern agriculture. The reasons most cited are soil and climate often unfavorable, insufficient water, financial capital , training and adapted in a number of countries in political, economic or adverse legal or imbalances caused by certain taxes or protect markets, and especially the massive subsidies given to industrial agriculture in rich countries.
Agronomist measuring the growth of corn and other data Agricultural Research Service , Department of Agriculture
Controversy over the environmental impacts of increased
Intensive agriculture is accused of being practiced at the expense of considerations environmental , hence its rejection by a number of producers and consumers, to which some advocates argue that the intensification of intensive agriculture can not meet its performance objectives by providing optimal conditions for plant growth, iPhone Unlock offsetting the loss of natural soil fertility inputs by replacing the elements exported. Critics respond that the negative balance of exports of organic matter results in a loss of humus, the fertilizers and pesticides contribute to a deterioration in quality soil and soil drainage and irrigation have impacts upstream and downstream (external costs) are not compensated.
Still others noted that some traditional agriculture had developed other forms of increased performance spa covers without mechanization or chemical inputs, such as with the traditional rice fields, the grove , the agro-forestry or as America by cultivating small raised fields in flood zones (savannah in Guyana for example, 8 , 9 ), or by affiliate marketing guide planting beans climbing the cornstalks (double crop, the legume enriching the soil with nitrogen for the benefit of corn ), producing crops comparable or sometimes exceeding those permitted by the mechanization and chemical inputs.
The intensification and industrial agriculture are often associated with the development and use of genetically modified organisms , and could be related with the increasing appearance of resistant plants to total herbicides, and crises such the mad cow disease , dioxins in certain meats, or spread of viruses such as H5N1 . Farmers, however, are also often victims of crises related to industrialization, but also sometimes caused by industrial accidents or pollution or urban legacy of wars upstream or downstream of agriculture.
One way among others to represent the concepts of sustainable development: Manage, restore, protect resources more or less solar panels renewable …
The sustainability is the quality of what is sustainable (definition of the Petit Larousse). By law , it aggressive driving is the period of use of a well . In the area of dependability is the ability of property to perform a function until a limit state is reached 1 .
The terms sustainability and sustainable development have been Bankruptcy popularized in the 1990s .
In 1987 , the Brundtland Report Chrome Wire Shelving defined the sustainable development as the development objective compatible with the needs of future generations. It should include three pillars: economic , environmental , and social equity.
Another term is also used in this sense: the neologism ” sustainability “, built on an English word ( sustainability ). We sometimes speak of “sustainable development”.
The term, however, was used for the first time by Hans Carl von Carlowitz in 1713.
Cause of the problem
Environmental issues and access to natural resources are from the year 1970 , with the oil crises and pollution , a growing concern in Western societies.
There is indeed that, according to expert studies in ecology , the ecological footprint of humanity beyond since the mid- 1970s, the capacity of the Earth to regenerate new resources and absorb wastes of all kinds of economic activity. The phenomenon of climate change is only one aspect wow gold of this problem, auctions online whose origin is in part a trend toward greater concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere .
The fisheries resources and the energy are the two areas where resource depletion is the most to fear 2 .
So especially the environmental problem that has emerged into the open in contemporary Western societies.
In developed countries , it was realized in the second half of the xix th century , during the Industrial Revolution , the need to ensure respect for the interests of employees in enterprises with trade unions , the right to strike , … Hence the expressions commonly used as “economic and social”, “capital / labor,” which strongly influenced the minds and institutions.
The inequality on the social aspects exist, however:
an imbalance between developed and developing countries , especially least developed make t shirts countries , with major inequalities in access to knowledge ( education ) in the diet and health (food, medicines ), d Hence the appearance of movement anti-globalization , advocacy of food sovereignty , of NGOs on Human Rights …
within developed countries , there are major inequalities.
Search for new sustainable business models
Durability low / high
Given the difficulty of integrating the environmental constraints in the overall functioning of the economy, has emerged two paradigms Green 3 :
The weak sustainability
In this case, consistent with the neoclassical economists, and defended by Hartwick ( 1977 ), there is substitution between artificial capital (wealth creation) and natural capital ( natural resource ).
This hypothesis is supported suspension lift kits by Herman Daly ( 1990 ). According to him, only the material flow of the economy that meets the following three conditions can be considered sustainable in terms of Chicago Criminal Lawyer material and energy: 4
The rate of consumption of renewable resources must not exceed the rate of regeneration of those resources.
The rate of consumption of nonrenewable resources do not exceed the rate at which sustainable renewable substitutes are developed.
The rate of pollution emission do not exceed the capacity of the environment to absorb and assimilate the pollution.
In this case, the stock of natural capital electric cigarette must not fall. Daly argues that natural capital and artificial capital are complementary, not substitutable.
The indicator proposed by the Stiglitz Commission , net saving added, making the three interchangeable forms of capital: “economic” (from production), “human” (addressed only through education spending), “natural” (limiting environmental damage only to climatic aspects) 5 . This indicator is thus placed in web hosting a model of weak sustainability.
Notion of “natural capital”
In order to have global visibility of the point of view, so Phen375 Review some experts spoke of ” natural capital “, which should complement other forms of capital.
For the Physiocrats , the earth was Relevant Life Policy the only source of wealth. This view differs from the successors of cash advance the classical school , which distinguishes the production factors capital and labor.
From the perspective of the history of economic thought , it seems that the omission of environmental issues has occurred in the xix th century , Denver Divorce Lawyer when economists have ignored the factor of production ” ground and basement. ”
Indeed, in the neoclassical economic theory , capital can be increased by the investment . But the earth is then regarded as immutable, the action of man on the environment and significant supply constraints of raw materials were then ignored. The natural capital is now a component of capital in the neoclassical theory.
However, the expression of natural capital distorts the initial design of a production factor of the classical economists.
Taking into account the need for sustainability
Main article: sustainable development .
New environmental concepts
In other words, environmental concerns, which were represented by the factor of production land and subsoil, is coming back from the year 1970 in the panel discussions:
The ecological footprint concept is rather a macro that can be integrated into the economic aggregates ( GDP ,…),
The eco-efficiency is a concept for its micro , which can result in the design of products by industry life cycle analysis of multidimensional, using a set of criteria.
The factor of 10 , which is the ability to create products and services that have an intensity of consumption of natural resources far below the conventional methods. It was created on the initiative of the German Institute of Wuppertal.
The MIPS, Material Intensity per Service Unit, the concept of industrial ecology .
Increases the difficulty in integrating these concerns in practice in public management and in the business.
Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases
The consideration of environmental issues from the perspective of the issue of greenhouse gas emissions is included in the Kyoto Protocol . Of gas emission quotas of greenhouse enrolled in the protocol, but are not respected by all countries.
However, it faces two major obstacles:
the greenhouse gas emissions are only part of the environmental pillar, a few indicators of sustainable development in the GRI
These quotas do not take into account the social pillar,
they take into account the economic dimension with an incomplete intersection with the environmental pillar.
It is denver injury lawyer therefore difficult to generalize this tool in all aspects of economic life, especially as the services are now the majority in today’s economies.
Creation of indicators
Taking into account the three pillars of sustainable development is through various indicators of management :
standard ISO 14000 for environmental
the standard SA 8000 for suppliers
specification OHSAS 18001 for hygiene, health, and safety.
Companies also use sets of indicators based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) of the Global Compact , which brings together the three pillars and governance .
Main article: Pressure State Response .
There is also the PSR of the OECD , which has the advantage, for each environmental indicator to distinguish the P ression, the E state, and R esponse.